Verghese Kurien (26 November 1921 – 9 September 2012) was an Indian social entrepreneur who is known as the Father of White Revolution in India for his Operation Flood, the world's largest agricultural development programme. This transformed India from a milk-deficient nation to the world's largest milk producer, surpassing the United States of America in 1998, with about 17 percent of global output in 2010–11, which in 30 years doubled milk available to every person. Dairy farming became India's largest self-sustaining industry. He also made India self-sufficient in edible oils taking on the powerful and entrenched oil supplying lobby. He found major institutes such as Anand Milk Federation Union Limited, National Dairy Development Board and Institute of Rural Management Anand. As the founding chairman of the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF), Kurien was responsible for the creation and success of the Amul brand of dairy products. A key achievement at Amul was the invention of milk powder processed from buffalo-milk abundant in India as opposed to that made from cow-milk in the then major milk producing nations. This led Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri to appoint him the founder-chairman of National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in 1965, to replicate Amul's "Anand model" nationwide. He is regarded as one of the greatest proponents of the cooperative movement in the world, his work having lifted millions out of poverty in India and outside.